Pantethine: A special form of vitamin B5.
Burns fat and lowers triglycerides 25%.

Pantethine is natural vitamin that is a stable disulfide form of pantetheine, a precursor of coenzyme A. Pantethine is the coenzymatic form of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) and cysteamine.

Pantethine may increase levels of coenzyme A. Increased levels of coenzyme A can increase the beta oxidation of fatty acids directly.

Susan First  presented the clinical findings of pantethine in a study done at the University of Minnesota Medical School

The patients in the study were generally healthy, un-medicated adults. The study was double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled and cross-over. Each patient was given placebo, 600 mg and 900 mg pantethine for 6 weeks.

Under these conditions pantethine:

reduced LDL-c by 10-15%

fasted triglycerides by 20-25% and

increased HDL-c by 15-20%.

Participants were also required to maintain all other lifestyle habits (i.e.; exercise and alcohol intake) throughout the study. Liver function, platelet counts, white blood cell counts and all other parameters were unchanged by any of the treatment doses. No side effects were reported.

The study concluded that pantethine appears to be a safe, effective, and affordable lipid-altering therapy. Similar studies using pantethine have shown a progressive decrease in serum cholesterol (LDL) and an increase in HDL.

NOTE

It is very hard to raise HDL, the “good” cholesterol. A high HDL can be protective by keep the arteries clear of plaque and blockages.

Pantethine may improve symptoms associated with having a fatty liver

AMERICANS EATING THE “NORMAL AMERICAN DIET” MAY HAVE FATTY LIVERS

Left untreated,  fatty liver can contribute to other illnesses. The liver is the organ responsible for changing fats eaten in the diet to types of fat that can be stored and used by the body.

In a study conducted in Japan, 600 mg/day of pantethine was administered to 16 outpatients with fatty liver and  HIGH triglycerides for 6 months or longer to examine whether the drug improved fatty liver using abdominal  computed tomography (CT).

Nine of the 16-pantethine patients were no longer diagnosed as having fatty liver after the study period.  (Osono Y, Hirose N, Nakajima K, Hata Y. “The effects of pantethine on fatty liver and fat distribution.” J Atheroscler Thromb 2000;7(1):55-8)

Pantethine has been shown to enhance cognitive abilities

In rats that received daily injections of pantethine, the drug facilitated the learning process and activity level of the animals.

Other studies have confirmed that pantethine is beneficial to brain function. (Morisaki N, Matsuoka N, Shirai K, Sasaki N, Saito Y, Kumagai A. “Effect of pantethine on fatty acid oxidation in microvessels of rat brain.” Tohoku J Exp Med 1983 Sep;141(1):41-5)

Other possible uses:

One very small study indicated that large daily doses of pantothenic acid were helpful to relieve symptoms of arthritis. (Haslock DI, Wright V, “Pantothenic acid in the treatment of osteoarthrosis.” Rheumatol Phys Med 1971 Feb;11(1):10-3)

Pantethine has also been used successfully for heart burn, ulcers and candida infections and has been used with some success in the management of certain allergies.

Experiments with rats have shown that a deficiency of pantothenic acid can cause hair to turn gray and fall out. Neither oral nor topical use of any form of pantothenic acid has been shown to prevent or treat gray hair or balding in humans.

Some skin care products contain another form of pantothenic acid, called panthoderm, which may be helpful in treatment of minor skin injuries.

It has also been said to have certain anti-aging properties. More research needs to be done to further substantiate these claims.

Research: Improved arterial health, lower cholesterol, improved risk, improved diabetic risk, etc.

Studies have shown that pantethine inhibits several of the enzymes and coenzymes that make cholesterol. It blocks the activity of one coenzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, HMG-CoA, by about 50%. This results in significantly lower cholesterol production.

But, that’s not all.

To compensate for the lowered cholesterol production, the liver pulls LDL out of the bloodstream.

The end result?

Studies have shown that on average, pantethine can lower total cholesterol levels by 16%, LDL cholesterol levels by 14%, serum triglycerides by 38%, and can raise HDL cholesterol by 10%.

Pantethine lowers cholesterol and HEALS ARTERIES

Pantethine (P), a coenzyme A precursor, was administered to cholesterol-fed rabbits (0.5% cholesterol diet + 1% pantethine) for 90 days. At the end of treatment, plasma total cholesterol levels were reduced 64.7% and the HDL/total cholesterol ratio increased in P-treated animals; a significant rise of the apo A-I/A-II ratio was detected in HDL. VLDL lipid and protein levels were, on the other hand, reduced by P. The cholesterol-ester content of both liver and aortic tissues was not significantly affected by P. Although the total aortic area with evident plaques was reduced only 18.2%, the microscopical examination of sections from the major vessels of P-treated animals, showed a reduction in the severity of lesions, both in the aorta and in the coronary arteries. These findings suggest that P, in addition to significantly lowering plasma cholesterol levels in rabbits on an experimental diet, may modify lipid deposition in major arteries, possibly by affecting lipoprotein composition and/or exerting an arterial protective effect. Carrara P, Matturri L, Galbussera M, Lovati MR, Franceschini G, Sirtori CR. Atherosclerosis 1984 Dec;53(3):255-64

Pantethine, diabetes and atherosclerosis. Clinical study of 1045 patients

After a review of the clinical studies on the treatment of diabetic patients with pantethine, the authors discuss the results obtained in a postmarketing surveillance (PMS) study on 1045 hyperlipidemic patients receiving pantethine (900 mg/day on average).  Beyond the epidemiological considerations made possible by a PMS study, the authors show that pantethine brought about a statistically significant and comparable improvement of lipid metabolism in the three groups of patients, with very good tolerability. Pantethine should therefore be considered for the treatment of lipid abnormalities also in patients at risk such as those with diabetes mellitus. Donati C, Bertieri RS, Barbi G. Clin Ter 1989 Mar 31;128(6):411-22

PMID: 2524328 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Success of pantethine in ischemic heart disease
(PEOPLE AT RISK OF HEART ATTACKS)

Pantethine, was studied in 182 patients with coronary heart disease and stable angina. Pantethine had favourable effects on  hemodynamics, on lipids, riboflavin and ascorbic acid. It is recommended  in a dose of 300 mg/day, during 3 weeks, be included into the combined treatment of coronary patients with no manifest disorders of lipid metabolism. Patients with manifest hyperlipidemia should be administered pantethine in a dose of 500 mg/dayBorets VM, Lis MA, Pyrochkin VM, Kishkovich VP, Butkevich ND. Vopr Pitan 1987 Mar-Apr;(2):15-7

PMID: 3590676 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Hyperlipidemia, diabetes and atherosclerosis: efficacy of treatment with pantethine
(PEOPLE W/ HIGH CHOLESTEROL, ARTERIAL DISEASE, AND DIABETES OR “PRE” DIABETES)

In 37 hypercholesterolemic and/or hypertriglyceridemic patients. Of these, 21 were also diabetic. 3  months and during this period the patients were given Pantethine at the dose of 600 mg/die orally. At the 30th, the 60th, the 90th day of treatment the following parameters were controlled: cholesterolemia, HDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins A and B, triglyceridemia, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, uricemia, body weight.

Pantethine induced in all groups a quick and progressive decrease of cholesterolemia, triglyceridemia, LDL cholesterol and Apolipoproteins B with increased HDL cholesterol and Apolipoproteins A.

After suspending the treatment, there is a clear inversion of the state of these parameters. The Authors conclude that the present work shows that Pantethine, a natural and non-toxic substance,  is efficacious in determining a clear tendency towards normalization of the lipidic values. Arsenio L, Caronna S, Lateana M, Magnati G, Strata A, Zammarchi G. Acta Biomed Ateneo Parmense 1984;55(1):25-42

PMID: 6232801 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemia.

A one-year clinical trial with pantethine was conducted in 24 patients with established dyslipidemia of Fredrickson’s types II A, II B, and IV, alone or associated with diabetes mellitus. The treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no subjective complaints or detectable side effects. Blood lipid assays repeated after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment revealed consistent and statistically significant reductions of all atherogenic lipid fractions (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B) with parallel increases of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A. The results were equally good in patients with uncomplicated dyslipidemia and in those with associated diabetes mellitus. The authors conclude that pantethine (a drug entity related to the natural compound, pantetheine) represents a valid therapeutic support for patients with dyslipidemia not amenable to satisfactory correction of blood lipids by diet alone. Arsenio L, Bodria P, Magnati G, Strata A, Trovato R. Clin Ther 1986;8(5):537-45

PMID: 3094958 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Pantethine improves the lipid abnormalities of chronic hemodialysis patients: results of a multicenter clinical trial.

The mean duration of treatment was 9 months (min. 7 months, max. 24 months), with oral doses of 600 to 1200 mg of pantethine daily (mean daily dosage 970 mg). Improvement was noted in terms of total blood cholesterol in the 7 patients with basal hypercholesterolemia (p less than 0.01) and highly significant reduction of serum triglycerides. No variations of HDL-cholesterol or total Apo-A were detected. None of the patients experienced any adverse effects from the treatment. In the light of extensive experience with the drug, plus the results of this study, the authors conclude by stressing the importance of an effective and readily tolerated product, such as pantethine, for the treatment of dyslipidemia in patients on chronic hemodialysisDonati C, Barbi G, Cairo G, Prati GF, Degli Esposti E. Clin Nephrol 1986 Feb;25(2):70-4

PMID: 3516477 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]